Chapter 5. Action speaks louder than words, even in speaking
Bilingual language switching incurs performance costs. These costs can be examined in the language-switching paradigm by measuring language-switch costs as performance difference between language-switch trials and language-repeat trials. The aim of the present study was to explore whether articulation-related processes are necessary to produce switch costs in language production tasks. We used a go/no-go signal delay, in which a go signal or a no-go signal was presented either 100 ms or 1500 ms after stimulus onset to distinguish between lexical selection and later processes like articulation. The results demonstrate that the overt articulation of a response (as in go trials) is critical for language-switch costs to occur. Crucially, if a response was only selected and prepared but not executed (as in a delayed no-go trial), no language-switch costs emerged in the subsequent trial. This result demonstrates the critical importance of late articulation-related processes for language-switch costs.