Decreasing dependence on orthography in phonological development
Despite the general transparency of standard Turkish orthography, it fails to distinguish the (not fully predictable) contrast between coronal vs. dorsal laterals following back vowels in certain loanwords: the laterals in /koɫ/ <kol> and /rol/ <rol> are both represented as <l>. This contrast results in non-canonical vowel harmony, where the backness of a suffix vowel is determined by the lateral, rather than by the preceding vowel (e.g. /koɫ-a/ <kola>, but /rol-e/ <role>). While early English-Turkish learners performed at a significantly higher level of accuracy on selecting the target suffix vowel in these contexts with auditory-­only presentation of the stimulus than with auditory and written presentation, intermediate and advanced learners come to rely more on auditory stimuli and less on orthography.