Metaphors we live twice
This chapter aims to introduce metaphors from two different perspectives:cognitive-linguistic and communicative. In presenting these views, we refer toLakoff and Johnson’s theory of conceptual metaphors (1980) which influencedthe evolving field of metaphor studies and its applications to related disciplines,including linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, politics, education, arts,and media. We argue that the theory of conceptual metaphors conflated thecommunicative dimension of metaphor with its linguistic and cognitive layers.Other trends in metaphor studies have emerged since and suggested that thecommunicative dimension of metaphor cannot be reduced to its conceptualand/or linguistic component (e.g. Sperber & Wilson 1986; Cameron & Low1999; Carston 2010; Steen 2011a).Our work aims at making metaphors ‘live twice’, by answering two mainquestions: does the communicative dimension of metaphor have specific featuresthat disallows complete reduction to its linguistic and cognitive dimensions?If indeed that is the case then how could these specific properties ofcommunication change our view regarding the linguistic and cognitive dimensionsof metaphor? All papers collected in this volume seek to answers thesequestions, offering new research perspectives, irreducible to the points of viewprevailing in the conceptual theory of metaphor.