Design of a gaze behavior at a small mistake moment for a robot
A change of gaze behavior at a small mistake moment is a natural response that reveals our own mistakes and suggests an apology to others with whom we are working or interacting. In this paper we investigate how robot gaze behaviors at small mistake moments change the impressions of others. To prepare gaze behaviors for a robot, first, we identified by questionnaires how human gaze behaviors change in such situations and extracted three kinds: looking at the other, looking down, and looking away. We prepared each gaze behavior, added a no-gaze behavior, and investigated how a robot’s gaze behavior at a small mistake moment changes the impressions of the interacting people in a simple cooperative task. Experiment results show that the ‘looking at the other’ gaze behavior outperforms the other gaze behaviors and indicates the degrees of perceived apologeticness and friendliness.