Cooperative gazing behaviors in human multi-robot interaction
When humans are addressing multiple robots with informative speech acts (Clark & Carlson 1982), their cognitive resources are shared between all the participating robot agents. For each moment, the user’s behavior is not only determined by the actions of the robot that they are directly gazing at, but also shaped by the behaviors from all the other robots in the shared environment. We define cooperative behavior as the action performed by the robots that are not capturing the user’s direct attention. In this paper, we are interested in how the human participants adjust and coordinate their own behavioral cues when the robot agents are performing different cooperative gaze behaviors. A novel gaze-contingent platform was designed and implemented. The robots’ behaviors were triggered by the participant’s attentional shifts in real time. Results showed that the human participants were highly sensitive when the robot agents were performing different cooperative gazing behaviors.