Chapter 9. Valence-changing operations in Zaniza Zapotec
This chapter provides the first descriptive account of valence-changing devices in Zaniza Zapotec, an under-documented language from the Papabuco branch of Zapotec. As in the other Zapotec varieties, the number of valence-increasing mechanisms in Zaniza Zapotec outnumbers that of valence-lowering options. While the former include several valence-increasing morphemes, incorporation of the comitative marker, inflectional means of raising valence and analytical causatives, the latter are confined to the anticausative morpheme <i>du-</i> and object incorporation. With the exception of versives and conversives, non-directional (equipollent) valence-related derivation is of limited occurrence in this variety.