Chapter 11. Changes in valence in San Andrés Yaá Zapotec*

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This paper discusses means, both productive and non-productive, by which a verb base&#8217;s valence in San Andr&#233;s Ya&#225; Zapotec (SAYZ) may vary, seen within a larger typology within the Zapotecan language family, as part of an effort to enhance our understanding of Zapotecan verbal morphosyntax. First, the paper studies opposite-valence SAYZ verb bases involving the diachronic incorporation of the Proto-Zapotec causative morphemes <i>&#42;k-, &#42;o-</i> and <i>&#42;s(s)e-</i>. Next, the paper describes productive mechanisms for increasing a verb&#8217;s valency: the suffix <i>-l</i>, which licenses an instrument or a patient, the comitative suffix <i>-neen</i>, and the clitic <i>=x/=zh/=ch/=dzh </i>&#8216;more&#8217;. Lastly, the paper studies reflexive and reciprocal morphemes, which arguably sometimes incorporate to a verb and decrease its valency.


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