Chapter 11. Changes in valence in San Andrés Yaá Zapotec*
This paper discusses means, both productive and non-productive, by which a verb base’s valence in San Andrés Yaá Zapotec (SAYZ) may vary, seen within a larger typology within the Zapotecan language family, as part of an effort to enhance our understanding of Zapotecan verbal morphosyntax. First, the paper studies opposite-valence SAYZ verb bases involving the diachronic incorporation of the Proto-Zapotec causative morphemes <i>*k-, *o-</i> and <i>*s(s)e-</i>. Next, the paper describes productive mechanisms for increasing a verb’s valency: the suffix <i>-l</i>, which licenses an instrument or a patient, the comitative suffix <i>-neen</i>, and the clitic <i>=x/=zh/=ch/=dzh </i>‘more’. Lastly, the paper studies reflexive and reciprocal morphemes, which arguably sometimes incorporate to a verb and decrease its valency.