Chapter 2. Breaking the glass & keeping the ceiling
During the last half of the 20th century grass root women’s movements have been instrumental in the transition to democracy in Latin America. These social movements were followed by an increased political representation of women at the congressional level, and within the last few decades, six women have been chosen to the highest office: Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (1990–97), Nicaragua; Mireya Moscoso de Arias (1999–2004), Panamá; Laura Chinchilla (2010–2014), in Costa Rica; Michelle Bachelet (2006–2010 & 2014 to present), Chile; Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (2007–to present), Argentina; Dilma Rousseff (2011 to present), Brazil. In our paper, we examine the discursive practices that allowed Kirchner and Bachelet to win their presidencies, and their position on gender, human rights, and economic issues.