Pre-election TV debates – persuasive games between ethos, logos, and pathos
This article presents argumentation in pre-electoral TV debates. Three debate cycles are analyzed – in Poland (2010), Great Britain (2010), and the United States (2008). They represent an example of a ritual dispute marked by the format or rhetorical order – <i>dispositio</i> – governing the persuasive discourse taking place in the TV micro-situation. A macro-situation applies to the communication between politicians and electors which involves different argumentation. It can be divided into central (<i>logos</i>) and peripheral (<i>pathos</i> and <i>ethos</i>). The authors analyze these types of argumentation. What is more, a difference between <i>ad rem, ad hominem </i>and <i>ad auditores</i> arguments is described. The debate format as well as the factual/eristic argumentation techniques used to build one’s ethos are depicted.