Chapter 9. Measuring associations between two categorical variables
This chapter focuses on associations between two categorical variables. You will learn how to measure the association strength using odds ratios, Cramér’s <i>V</i> and the φ-coefficient. You will also learn how to test whether the association is statistically significant with the help of the <i>χ2</i>-test and the Fisher exact test. Bar plots, mosaic plots and association plots are used as visualization tools for cross-tabulated data. All these concepts and tools will be illustrated by case studies of metaphoric and non-metaphoric uses of the preposition <i>over</i> and the verb <i>see</i> in different registers.