Negation in Nganasan
In Nganasan, verbal negation is expressed by the negative auxiliary <i>ńi</i>-, which takes all the inflectional suffixes from the main verb. There are two more negative markers: a constituent negator <i>ńintuu</i> and a predicative negator <i>ďaŋku</i>; the former is also used to negate attributive predications, and the latter negates existential and possessive predications. These two markers also serve as negative replies. Besides this, verbs have a dedicated abessive (‘not yet’) form, and nouns can take a caritive marker. There exist no dedicated negative pronouns; indefinites with emphatic markers are used instead.