Negation in Komi
There are several types of negative markers in Komi. Negation of verbal predicates is based on negative auxiliaries in the present, future and 1st past tense of the indicative as well as in the imperative and optative moods. In the 2nd past tense and in the negation of non-verbal predicates a marker appears that can be considered a particle, although in the negation of existence and possession it has nominal features. Borrowed negative particles are used in constituent negation and as negative prefixes of indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Finally, two negative suffixes can be attached to both verbs and nouns. One of them forms negative converbs and is an abessive case suffix, whereas the other forms negative participles and is a derivational ending of adjectives.