Negation in Udmurt
The present paper is a general survey of the constructions and patterns expressing negation in Udmurt. Negation in Udmurt has features that are typical for other Finno-Ugric languages, especially Udmurt’s close relatives, the Komi languages. In particular, standard negation is typically expressed by a construction combining a negative verb having finite characteristics with a lexical verb that expresses number; this is for instance found in the present, future and 1st preterite tenses. In non-declarative constructions and non-verbal clauses, mostly negative particles are used, for instance in the imperative and conditional. Negation in the optative can be expressed by a negative verb as well as a particle. Unlike Komi, in Udmurt the negative pattern of the 2nd preterite can be formed either by a negative particle or a negative suffix. The negative suffix is typical of the Southern dialects, and it is regarded as an influence of the neighbouring Tatar language.