Negation in Livonian
The paper gives an overview of negation in Livonian. The study is based on fieldwork data and previous research. Livonian has negation markers of three types: (1) auxiliaries, <i>äb</i> in the indicative and conditional present, <i>iz</i> in the indicative past, and <i>alā</i> in the imperative and the jussive; (2) particle <i>mittõ</i> is used to reinforce negation and to mark the scope of the constituent negation; (3) particle <i>äp</i> functions as a prosentence. All categories which are expressed in affirmative verb forms occur also in negative forms, although their expression is divided inconsistently between the negation verb and the lexical verb. The negation markers have given rise to negative prefixes, coordinating conjunctions, and a comparative marker.