Language production in late life
As individuals age, their speech changes. Nonpathological changes to the brain’s structure and organization affect the function of the prefrontal cortex, the lateralization of functions, and neuromodulation of synaptic transmission. As a result, word-finding problems increase, speech becomes increasingly constrained by working memory limitations, and older adults become more susceptible to the effects of distractions and dual-task demands. At the same time, aging affects social relationships and interactions. Negative stereotypes of older adults are pervasive, resulting in both over- and under-accommodations to aging, the use of elderspeak, and the assumption that older adults are prone to be excessively talkative.