Counter-argumentation and modality
Argumentative texts are essentially “modal texts”. They respond to the need of an encoder and/or addressee about stating the degree of truth and certainty with respect to some claims.In argumentation, every statement which is presented as a claim always needs an overt or non-overt argument which assures the addressee about the degree of certainty of that statement. The argument supporting a conclusion has the task of stating whether the implicit or triggered claim is true or false.The modal information is delivered by obligatory or optional argumentative categories.Optional counter-argumentative categories introduced by complementizers like <i>although</i>, <i>nevertheless</i>, <i>at least</i>, <i>unless</i> etc., function as super-modal operators questioning the truth-value of a given argumentation. The article is based on Lo Cascio’ s book 2009 and on Lo Cascio’s article 1995 on argumentation and modality.