Lying as a scalar phenomenon
In the philosophical debate on lying, there has generally been agreement that either the speaker believes that his statement is <i>false</i>, or he believes that his statement is <i>true</i>. This article challenges this assumption, and argues that lying is a scalar phenomenon that allows for a number of intermediate cases – the most obvious being cases of uncertainty. The first section shows that lying can involve beliefs about graded truth values (<i>fuzzy lies</i>) and graded beliefs (<i>graded-belief lies</i>). It puts forward a new definition to deal with these scalar parameters, that requires that the speaker asserts what he believes <i>more likely to be false than true</i>. The second section shows that statements are scalar in the same way beliefs are, and accounts for a further element of scalarity, illocutionary force.