Beyond Nativization? Philippine English in Schneider's Dynamic Model
According to Schneider (2007), the development of Philippine English (PE) is unique in that the language was brought to the country through American, and not British, colonial expansion. Whereas Outer Circle countries in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia, took about two hundred years to move from Phase 1 to Phase 3 of the Dynamic Model, English in the Philippines evolved to a state of Nativization in fewer than a hundred years. In this chapter, I explore the issue of PE as remaining restricted in Phase 3 and thus, “coming to a halt” in the Nativization Phase (Schneider 2007: 143) of the model. Or, as some have claimed, has PE progressed beyond Nativization and developed into a variety of Endonormative Stabilization?