English in Germany
Even if linguistic research (e.g. Berns 1988; Hilgendorf 2005) has claimed that the status of English in Germany might be changing from foreign language (EFL) to second language (ESL) status, or, for that matter, from an Expanding Circle to an Outer Circle English (e.g. Kachru 1985), empirical evidence is sparse. The present study addresses this gap by presenting different types of empirical data which tackle three issues relevant for describing the status of English: spreading bilingualism, exonormative orientation and the nativization of pronunciation features. In addition it is shown how the categorization of English spoken in non-postcolonial settings can profit from the basic notions of Schneider’s Dynamic Model for postcolonial Englishes and thus go beyond the tradition static terms ESL, EFL and the like.