Apophony and chiming words in Malay
This paper studies a special pattern of reduplication in Malay: chiming words (Bador 1964). This construction is characterized by vowel alternations as in untang-anting ‘swinging’. In our analysis, the chiming words tend to form a 4 vowels relation between the base and its reduplicant. The apophonic path, <i>Ø → i → a → u</i>, proposed by Guerssel and Lowenstamm (1996) links the vowels inside each word from right to left, <i>a → u untang, i → a anting</i>, and the same relation holds for vowels in the right word and the left <i>a → u untang-anting, i → a untang-anting</i>. When the apophonic relation is not part of the base, then the chiming is reduced to the last apophonic vowel.