Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence
This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in theNetherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use theirheritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitativelydifferent input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often describedin terms of change. This article focuses on three types of stability in heritagespeakers: stability in form, based on two case studies on progressive and definitemarking, stability in function, based on a study on classifiers in Mandarin andCantonese Chinese, and stability in form and meaning based on a study on thenon-completion of the grammaticalization process of punya. We relate (non)-change to the influence of the dominant language as well as to more generaleffects of bilingualism.