Parallel languages in the history of language ideology in Norway and the lesson for Nordic higher education
This chapter compares recent policy on the use of English and Norwegian in higher education with earlier policies on the relationship between the two standard varieties of Norwegian, and it charts how and why English became a policy issue in Norway. Based on the experience of over a century of language planning, a highly interventionist approach is today being avoided and language policies in the universities of Norway seek to nurture a situation where English and Norwegian may be used productively side-by-side. However, there remain serious practical challenges to be overcome. This paper also builds on a previous analysis (Linn, 2010b) of the metalanguage of Nordic language policy and seeks to clarify the use of the term ‘parallelingualism’.