Portuguese remnants in the Afro-Hispanic diaspora
During the transatlantic slave trade, several pidgin Portuguese contact varieties originally spoken in sub-Saharan Africa came into contact with New World Spanish. In the Americas, the resulting Afro-Iberian diaspora involved thousands of speakers, and was far-flung, extending from Cuba to Bolivia and beyond. This paper studies rare and precious remnants of this Afro-Iberian contact in four very distinct New World vernaculars: the Yungas of Highland Bolivia, the Chota Valley of Ecuador, Palenquero creole of Colombia, and the ritual language Palo Monte of Cuba. Most prominent among these remnants is the invariant third-person pronoun <i>ele ~ (n)elle</i> ‘he, she, it; they’, shown here to be a “deep feature” derived from (Afro-)Port. <i>ele</i> ‘he’ and <i>eles</i> ‘they’.