Chapter 3. Chinese complementary schools in Scotland and the Continua of Biliteracy

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This chapter employs Hornberger’s Continua of Biliteracy as an analytical framework to critically engage with the Chinese complementary school phenomena in Scotland. It begins with an historical and up-to-date overview of the Chinese diaspora in Scotland. This is followed by a discussion of each of the Continua’s four spheres of influence in turn. In particular, attention is paid to how prevailing language policies shape children’s biliteracy experiences, including a shift towards learning Mandarin (Context); how texts are frequently used by teachers to guide children to an appreciation of Chinese cultural values (Content); how teachers sometimes deviate from traditional and ‘mundane’ practices in order to generate an interest in learning Chinese literacy (Media); and how children draw on their biliterate resources to support their Chinese learning (Development). Finally, the implications for Chinese complementary schools in Scotland are outlined.


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