Chapter 3. Chinese complementary schools in Scotland and the Continua of Biliteracy
This chapter employs Hornberger’s Continua of Biliteracy as an analytical framework to critically engage with the Chinese complementary school phenomena in Scotland. It begins with an historical and up-to-date overview of the Chinese diaspora in Scotland. This is followed by a discussion of each of the Continua’s four spheres of influence in turn. In particular, attention is paid to how prevailing language policies shape children’s biliteracy experiences, including a shift towards learning Mandarin (Context); how texts are frequently used by teachers to guide children to an appreciation of Chinese cultural values (Content); how teachers sometimes deviate from traditional and ‘mundane’ practices in order to generate an interest in learning Chinese literacy (Media); and how children draw on their biliterate resources to support their Chinese learning (Development). Finally, the implications for Chinese complementary schools in Scotland are outlined.