Chapter 8. Evidentiality and illocutionary force
This paper centers on certain aspects of the syntax-semantics-pragmatics interface. Its main contribution is that it incorporates into the wide crosslinguistic list of grammatical evidentials one type of Spanish <i>que</i> ‘that’, which is claimed to have evolved into this category from a complementizer. To set our argument two cases are described: (i) (discourse initial) root clauses headed by <i>que</i> introducing a speech event (Etxepare 2007, 2010) which is reported; (ii) que-clauses reproducing previous discourse. Both descriptive and theoretical approaches group these instances of <i>que</i> together. We show, instead, that the first <i>que</i> is a “reportative evidential” while the second one is an ‘echoic’ <i>que</i>, a true (‘insubordinate’) complementizer, in some cases selected by a silent communication verb. The semantic and syntactic properties of both types of <i>que</i> are carefully described and syntactic-semantic analyses in terms of “illocutionary force” and discourse operators are proposed. Implications for the theory of the Left Periphery are also discussed.