On state of mind and grammatical forms
from functional perspectives
The basic usages of the auxiliary verbs <i>~garu</i> and <i>~(te)iru</i> are generally understood as expressing desire and thoughts other than those of the speaker him/herself. A proposition accompanying<i>~garu</i> and <i>~(te)iru</i> is often used with a modal, such as mitai, <i>rashii</i>, etc.; therefore, it belongs to the territory of the speaker domain. However, the proposition concerns another individual’s feelings that the speaker cannot perceive directly and is not an exclusive possession of the speaker. Using real-life usages that incorporate the notion of “territory of information” proposed by Kamio (1990) and the notion of “empathy,” by Kuno (1998), it is found that issues of hierarchy and empathy are deeply intertwined in their use in authentic communication and do not necessarily follow the description of standard grammar.