On state of mind and grammatical forms 
from functional perspectives

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The basic usages of the auxiliary verbs <i>~garu</i> and <i>~(te)iru</i> are generally understood as expressing desire and thoughts other than those of the speaker him/herself. A proposition accompanying<i>~garu</i> and <i>~(te)iru</i> is often used with a modal, such as mitai, <i>rashii</i>, etc.; therefore, it belongs to the territory of the speaker domain. However, the proposition concerns another individual&#8217;s feelings that the speaker cannot perceive directly and is not an exclusive possession of the speaker. Using real-life usages that incorporate the notion of &#8220;territory of information&#8221; proposed by Kamio (1990) and the notion of &#8220;empathy,&#8221; by Kuno (1998), it is found that issues of hierarchy and empathy are deeply intertwined in their use in authentic communication and do not necessarily follow the description of standard grammar.


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