Crosslinguistic and crosscultural approaches to pragmatic development
Pragmatic development involves learning to use linguistic code and non-linguistic action in a well-integrated way in relation to an ongoing interaction. Given how different languages encode meaning distinctions differently and how different cultures might organize social interactions differently, comparative studies are crucially relevant for understanding pragmatic development. This chapter focuses on currently available crosslinguistic and crosscultural research about (1) nonverbal interaction, (2) referential communication, (3) speech acts and politeness, and (4) extended discourse such as conflicts. We also including a section on how children learning different languages are socialized to use language in varied ways by families, peers and schools. Future directions are suggested on the basis of this current research.