Not so high
The status of the causee argument in Hindi and other South Asian Languages has been contentious in recent literature as it takes instrumental/ablatice Case marker and hence, seems comparable to an instrumental/ablative adjunct (-<i>se</i> in Hindi, <i>athi </i>in Kashmiri, <i>tõ: </i>in Punjabi, and -<i>n∂</i> in Manipuri). The question is whether the instrumental/ablative Case marker appearing on the causee and on an instrumental adjunct should only receive an analysis of accidental homophony or a more principled analysis between the two is possible? The paper here argues that such an analysis is certainly possible. The instrumental/ablative is an adjunct and in causatives, the causee argument is merged to the Voice head as its specifier (the position involving <i>-se/athi/tõ:/n∂</i> being valued as a <i>structural,</i> rather than a lexical, Case). It is further argued that though, this position is υP-external, i.e. ‘high’ but not ‘high’ enough to count as the subject.