Non-canonical subject marking
Classical Armenian shows genitive case-marking of the subject of transitive predicates based on the participle ending in -<i>eal</i>, while the subject of intransitive predicates has nominative case marking. In the passive construction, which uses the same participle, the subject is also marked as nominative. The genitive-subject construction is unusual in itself given that Armenian has nominative case marking of the subject of both transitive and intransitive predicates not based on the participle ending in -<i>eal</i> (i.e. in the present/imperfect and the aorist). Following Meillet and others, it can be argued that the basis of this construction is a possessive construction with a verbal noun that was integrated into the verbal paradigm as a participle and gradually lost nominal features.