Chapter 8. Investigating L2 spoken syntax
This chapter explores the implications and applications of research into native spoken language in the context of second language learning and use. Spoken language structures differ in fundamental ways from those of written language and require to be analysed on their own terms. The chapter outlines the principles underlying qualitative research into native spoken syntax, including a discussion of methodological and analytic challenges, and suggests that this research is aligned with usage-based and related cognitive language models. Methodological and analytic issues are then illustrated in the area of subordination and clause complexes in native speaker and English as a second language (L2). The chapter concludes with a summary of core issues in the study of L2 spoken syntax and grammar.