On the syntax-semantics of passives
This paper investigates passive constructions in Persian, ranging from basic morphological passives to impersonal passives, in comparison with similar constructions with <i>šodæn</i> ‘to become’. The basic passive constructions (<i>Past Participle</i> + <i>šodæn</i>) coexist with a body of <i>Noun/Adjective + šodæn</i> sequences with passive meaning as well as copular sentences in which <i>šodæn</i> appears after the noun or adjective. The different uses and interpretations of šodæn are accounted for based on the assumption that the interaction of the lexical semantic specification of <i>šodæn</i> and the other elements in the sequence determines the final interpretation of <i>šodæn</i> as a passive auxiliary or a copula. If the element preceding <i>šodæn</i> has a [+passive] feature, the construction will be calculated syntactically as passive. Otherwise, <i>šodæn</i> is treated as the copula in the syntactic computation.