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On the syntax-semantics of passives 
in Persian

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Abstract

This paper investigates passive constructions in Persian, ranging from basic morphological passives to impersonal passives, in comparison with similar constructions with <i>&#353;od&#230;n</i> &#8216;to become&#8217;. The basic passive constructions (<i>Past Participle</i> + <i>&#353;od&#230;n</i>) coexist with a body of <i>Noun/Adjective + &#353;od&#230;n</i> sequences with passive meaning as well as copular sentences in which <i>&#353;od&#230;n</i> appears after the noun or adjective. The different uses and interpretations of &#353;od&#230;n are accounted for based on the assumption that the interaction of the lexical semantic specification of <i>&#353;od&#230;n</i> and the other elements in the sequence determines the final interpretation of <i>&#353;od&#230;n</i> as a passive auxiliary or a copula. If the element preceding <i>&#353;od&#230;n</i> has a [+passive] feature, the construction will be calculated syntactically as passive. Otherwise, <i>&#353;od&#230;n</i> is treated as the copula in the syntactic computation.

References

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