Two indirect passive constructions in Japanese
In this study, I examine two indirect passive constructions in Japanese. Indirect passives are also known as “affective” passives since a participant in the encoded event is somehow affected. The two indirect passives discussed here crucially differ in the way the participant is affected. It is generally affected negatively with the <i>rare</i>-passive (hence, the “adversative” passive). In contrast, it is always affected positively with the <i>morau</i>-passive (hence, the “benefactive” passive). On the basis of this difference, I scrutinize the very notion of adversity and examine how the sense of adversity comes about for the <i>rare</i>-passive. I then discuss why adversity never arises for the <i>morau</i>-passive, and a benefactive reading instead obtains.