Chapter 1. Fair play to them
Proficiency in English is increasing across Europe. Because bilingual speech often contains ephemeral, speaker-specific nonce borrowings, code-switches, and all the other manifestations of crosslinguistic interaction, this will to a minor extent Anglicize much everyday language use. But increasing bilingualism is also likely to change patterns of borrowing. This article predicts that, while cultural and prestige borrowings from English will continue, increased proficiency in English will result in fewer false Anglicisms being created and more complex and abstract words being borrowed, although these will often not retain their native English meanings.