Requesting behaviours within episodes of active sharing
Similarly to humans, one of human’s closest living congener, chimpanzees (<i>Pan troglodytes</i>), have been observed to share food between unrelated individuals regardless of age and sex. The most remarkable cases of extended food sharing episodes including active sharing occur after chimpanzees have preyed upon mammals such as monkeys, duikers or bush pigs. Although a tremendous amount of research attention has focused on the function underlying the sophisticated sharing events, relatively little systematic research has investigated the behaviours and communicative signals surrounding and initiating these events. In the present paper, we thus provide the first systematic analysis of active meat sharing episodes by combining methods of comparative research with a micro-analytic approach in the form of conversation analysis. We describe how chimpanzees involved in sharing episodes achieve active sharing through a three-part process of (1) B requesting meat; (2) A giving meat; and (3) B taking meat. In addition, we describe the interactive process by which requests may not be acceded to and how subsequent requests may then be shaped and customized.