Substrate features in Nicaraguan, Providence and San Andrés Creole Englishes
This paper investigates the influence of the substrate as represented by the Kwa language Twi on the English-based creoles spoken on San Andrés and Old Providence (Colombia) and on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua. Thirty phonological, morphosyntactic and lexical features were selected for scrutiny. In a number of cases, it was impossible to make a case for exclusive substrate influence and it seems preferable to speak of convergence. However, there are also many language structures for which substrate influence offers the most likely explanation.