[Specialized converbs and adverbial subordination in Axaxdәrә Akhvakh, Part II. Clause-chaining, converbs, masdars, absolutive constructions, etc.]
Northern Akhvakh, like other Nakh-Daghestanian languages, has a large inventory of converbs specialized in the expression of various semantic types of adverbial subordination: locative, temporal, conditional, concessive, similative, gradual, and purposive. After outlining the general characteristics of Akhvakh morphosyntax, this paper describes the morphology and the uses of the individual converbs, and discusses the possibility of reconstructing their origins. Attention is drawn to the high proportion of etymologically transparent converbs, which suggests that the particular type of morphosyntactic organization characteristic of Nakh-Daghestanian languages favors grammaticalization processes that do not modify the overall organization of the adverbial subordination system, but result in a constant and relatively rapid renewal of the inventories of specialized converbs.