Middle scrambling with deictic locatives in European Portuguese
This paper discusses the peculiar ability of certain deictic locatives (like <i>lá</i> ‘there’) to appear left-adjacent to the verb in European Portuguese. We propose that leftward movement of <i>lá</i> (and similar deictic locatives) is middle scrambling, understood as movement to Spec,TP. In order to explain why <i>lá</i>-preposing to Spec,TP is not always permitted, we elaborate on the hypothesis of Costa & Martins (2003, 2004) that in EP the strong nature of the polarity-encoding head Σ requires it to be ‘lexicalized’ either by syntactic merger or by morphological merger under adjacency. Middle scrambling is barred whenever Σ and V must be adjacent. The analysis derives the particular syntax of the deictic locatives (in different clausal structures, including restructuring infinitives) and its puzzling parallelism with clitic placement. Finally, we suggest that speaker/utterance-anchorage is what links together deictic locatives and tense, enabling the former to enter the syntactic domain of the latter.