The reformulation challenge in translation
The present study investigates how polysemous English words are translated into Norwegian by professional translators and by bilinguals without translating expertise when presented in context versus in isolation. The effects of translating expertise on information intake as well as on the quality of text production are measured experimentally using a new methodological approach developed within the framework of an EYE-to-IT European Research Project approach that integrates keystroke and eye movement data. Specific research questions address the differential creativity of professionals and bilinguals and the development of specific performance enhancing skills by professional translators. Results of the study show that context reduces polysemy, but increases creativity by multiplying reformulation possibilities. The results also show interesting qualitative differences between professional translators and bilinguals.