Khwe uses four of five cross-linguistically attested strategies of participant marking: (1) Constituent order is relevant only in basic sentences. (2) Most postpositions assign a semantic role to peripheral participant, whereas the postposition <i>à </i>marks a core participant. (3) There is one instance of suffixation: The oblique case suffix <i>-à </i>or the gender suffixes <i>-B </i>and <i>-cì </i>mark a peripheral participant which may precede a postposition or is a nominal attribute. (4) Finally, derivation through suffixes attached to the verb stem is used to vary the semantics of the verb, which may also result in a manipulation of the valency of the verb. The fifth strategy – verb-serialization – only applies in combination with the verb *<i>ma </i>/ *<i>mō´ </i>as a lexical source for a derivational suffix.