For some years a shift has been observable in many European countries towards stricter conditions for people who want to enter, settle or apply for citizenship in the country. One of the new (or renewed) conditions for obtaining citizenship is language proficiency. Because of the diversity in Europe, the socio-political context in which these conditions have been set up and in which language tests have been developed differs considerably. At the same time policy makers strive for transparency and uniformity in migration policies across Europe. This chapter identifies and illustrates cross-national tendencies regarding conditions for admission, integration and naturalization of immigrants.