Areal convergence in grammaticalization processes
This paper discusses a number of developments within Standard Average European, which prove that the universal properties of grammaticalization processes can be reconciled with the specificity of situations of language contact. The four changes examined in the article are the development of periphrastic ‘have’-perfects, the extension of the definite article area, the renewal of the relative pronoun paradigm and the development of reflexive markers towards passive and impersonal constructions. The selected case studies illustrate how language contact may play a role in the initial stage of a given grammaticalization process or may reinforce and accelerate grammaticalization. The paper also shows that canonical grammaticalization and contact-induced grammaticalization develop along similar lines and that contactinduced grammaticalization should be distinguished from cases of mere calquing or transfer of grammatical forms.