12. Place and time adverbials in native and non-native English student writing
This chapter builds on previous research that has established the spoken nature of learner writing by providing quantitative and qualitative accounts of time and place adverbs of student writing in comparison to published academic English writing and native English conversation. The chapter shows that the frequency differences among learner groups are not nearly as great as the frequency differences between student writing and conversation. The qualitative analyses point to some L1-L2 differences, particularly with respect to <i>here</i>. The other most pronounced differences were not found as L1-L2 differences but instead showed evidence of divergence due to language background.