13. Preparing for international masters degrees at Stockholm University and the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm
In Stockholm the Bologna process has led to courses for administrators and teachers who will have to work in English. Courses oriented to well-defined communicative situations and to developing skills at seeking and recognising appropriate language have been effective for administrators. Teaching in a lingua-franca situation requires more conscious pedagogy than L1 teaching, so courses which offer a chance to practise appropriate pedagogy are more likely to achieve results in the very limited time available than any which focus on language proficiency. However, since participants usually experience the problem as linguistic rather than pedagogic, it may be necessary to highlight the linguistic aspects of courses to make them attractive and employ situations in the multilingual classroom as the arena for language use.