The English Contrastive Discourse Marker <i>instead</i>
This paper examines the English Contrastive Discourse Marker <i>instead</i> as it occurs both in written and spoken discourse. I conclude that there are two primary uses for <i>instead</i>: a “pseudo-action” use, where <i>instead</i> signals a contrast between a non-occurring action and an occurring action; and an “actual-action” use, where it signals a contrast between two occurring actions. I then discuss the semantic restrictions on the discourse segments contrasted with each of these two uses and find them mutually exclusive. Finally, I look at <i>instead</i> in combination with <i>and, but</i>, and <i>so</i>.