Japanese English bilingual children in three different language environments
This chapter investigates heritage language development from the perspective of bilingual and biliteracy development. Survey and proficiency data collected from 4th and 5th grade school children (<i>n</i>=33) attending bilingual programs in the United States are compared to those of Japanese children attending an English immersion program in Japan (<i>n</i>=30). This chapter emphasizes that school and family policies that encourage balanced use of two languages is required for children to be bilingual and bilateral. It discusses how external factors such as family, school, and community supports are crucial in creating cultural milieus that support learning environments where the children can use both languages.