The progressive in the spoken Papiamentu of Aruba
This paper investigates the use of the progressive morpheme, <i>-ndo</i>, in spoken Aruban Papiamentu using variationist methods. The morpheme is used with durative verbs to mark progressive or repeated action. Achievement verbs with <i>-ndo</i> indicate repeated action. <i>-ndo</i> use is associated with social prestige, and is used more frequently by each successive generation. These results complement those of Sanchez (2002), which traced the real time development of <i>-ndo</i> in its gerundive and progressive uses in texts, and attributed the rise of the progressive function to contact with English. Here we see that Papiamentu <i>-ndo</i> behaves more like English <i>-ing</i> than Spanish <i>-ndo</i>, and that speakers who learned Papiamentu before it came in contact with English do not use this form.