Measuring iconicity

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

Price: £15.00+Taxes
Add to favourites

A quantitative study of lexical and analytic causatives in British English

The full text of this article is not currently available.

Data & Media loading...


Full text loading...


The British National Corpus, version 3 (BNC XML Edition)
The British National Corpus, version 3 (BNC XML Edition) 2007 Distributed by Oxford University Computing Services on behalf of the BNC Consortium. Available online
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
2000 Transitivity in Tariana. In R. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), 145–172.
Amberber, Menigstu
2000 Valency-changing and valency-encoding devices in Amharic. In R. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), 312–332.
Bickel, Balthasar
2010 Capturing particulars and universals in clause linkage: A multivariate analysis. In Isabelle Bril (ed.), Clause-hierarchy and clause-linking: The syntax and pragmatics interface, 51–101. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.121.03bic
Bybee, Joan L.
1985 Diagrammatic iconicity in stem – inflection relations. In John Haiman (ed.), 11–47.
2010 Markedness: Iconicity, economy and frequency. In J. Jung Song (ed.), Handbook of Linguistic Typology, 131–147. Oxford: OUP.
Bybee, Joan L. & Sandra Thomspon
1997 Three frequency effects in syntax. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Pragmatics and Grammatical Structure, 378–388. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Comrie, Bernard
1981Language universals and linguistic typology: Syntax and morphology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Comrie, Bernard & Maria Polinsky
(eds.) 1993Causatives and transitivity. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.23
Diessel, Holger
2007 Frequency effects in language acquisition, language use, and diachronic change. New Ideas in Psychology25. 108–127. doi: 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2007.02.002
2008 Iconicity of sequence. A corpus-based analysis of the positioning of temporal adverbial clauses in English. Cognitive Linguistics19. 457–482. doi: 10.1515/COGL.2008.018
Dixon, R. M. W. & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
(eds.) 2000Changing valency: Case studies in transitivity. Cambridge: CUP. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511627750
Du Bois, John
1985 Competing motivations. In John Haiman (ed.), 343–365.
Fischer, Olga
1995 The distinction between “to” and bare infinitival complements in Late Middle English. DiachronicaXII(1). 1–30. doi: 10.1075/dia.12.1.02fis
Fodor, Jerry
1970 Three reasons for not deriving “kill” from “cause to die.” Linguistic Inquiry1(4). 429–438.
Gilquin, Gaëtanelle
2010Corpus, cognition and causative constructions. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.39
Givón, Talmy
1980 The binding hierarchy and the typology of complements. Studies in Language4(3). 333–377. doi: 10.1075/sl.4.3.03giv
1990Syntax: A functional-typological introduction. Vol.II. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Haiman, John
1983 Iconic and economic motivation. Language59(4). 781–819. doi: 10.2307/413373
(ed.) 1985Iconicity in syntax. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.6
Haspelmath, Martin
1993 More on the typology of inchoative/causative verb alternations. In Bernard Comrie & Maria Polinsky (eds.), 87–120.
2005 Universals of causative verb formation. Paper presented atLSA Institute, MIT, LSA.206, 2 August 2005.
2008a Creating economical morphosyntactic patterns in language change. In Jeff Good (ed.), Linguistic Universals and Language Change, 185–214. Oxford: OUP. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298495.003.0008
2008b Frequency vs. iconicity in explaining grammatical asymmetries. Cognitive Linguistics19(1). 1–33. doi: 10.1515/COG.2008.001
2010 Comparative concepts and descriptive categories in crosslinguistic studies. Language86(3). 663–687. doi: 10.1353/lan.2010.0021
Haspelmath, Martin , Andreea Calude , Michael Spagnol , Heiko Narrog & Elif Bamyaci
2014 Coding causal – noncausal verb alternations: A form – frequency correspondence explanation. Journal of Linguistics50. 587–625. doi: 10.1017/S0022226714000255
Hinton, Leanne
1982 How to cause in Mixtec. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Berkley Linguistics Society, 354–363.
Hollmann, Willem B.
2004 The iconicity of infinitival complementation in Present-day English causatives. In Constantino Maeder , Olga Fischer , & William J. Herlofsky (eds.), Outside-in – inside-out: Iconicity in language and literature, 287–306. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hopper, Paul & Sandra Thompson
1980 Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language56(2). 251–299. doi: 10.1353/lan.1980.0017
Johnson, Mark
1987The Body in the Mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Keller, Rudi
1994On Language Change: The Invisible Hand in Language. London: Routledge.
Kemmer, Suzanne & Arie Verhagen
1994 The grammar of causatives and the conceptual structure of events. Cognitive Linguistics5. 115–156. doi: 10.1515/cogl.1994.5.2.115
Kulikov, Leonid
1993 The “second causative”: A typological sketch. In Bernard Comrie & Maria Polinsky (eds.), 121–154. doi: 10.1075/slcs.23.06kul
LaPolla, Randi J.
2000 Valency-changing derivations in Dulong/Rawang. In R. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), 282–311.
Levin, Beth & Malka Rappoport Hovav
1995Unaccusativity: At the syntax-semantics interface. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Levshina, Natalia
2015aHow to do linguistics with R: Data exploration and statistical analysis. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.195
2015b European analytic causatives as a comparative concept: Evidence from a parallel corpus of film subtitles. Folia Linguistica49(2). 487–520. doi: 10.1515/flin‑2015‑0017
2016 Why we need a token-based typology: A case study of analytic and lexical causatives in fifteen European languages. Folia Linguistica50(2). 507–542. doi: 10.1515/flin‑2016‑0019
McEnery, Tony & Andrew Wilson
2001Corpus Linguistics. An Introduction. 2nd edn.Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Næss, Åshild
2007Prototypical transitivity. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/tsl.72
Nedjalkov, Vladimir P.
1969 Nekotoryje verojatnostnyje universalii v glagol’nom slovoobrazonanii [Some probabilistic universals in verbal derivation]. In I. F. Vardul’ (ed.), Jazykovyje universalii i lingvističeskaja tipologija, 106–114. Moscow: Nauka.
1976Kausativkonstruktionen. Tübingen: TBL.
Patterson, Betty S. J.
1974 A study of Korean causatives. Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics6(4). 1–52.
Piantadosi, Steven T. , Harry Tilly & Edward Gibson
2011 Word lengths are optimized for efficient communication. PNAS108(9). 3526–3529. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1012551108
R Core Team
R Core Team 2014R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Rosenbach, Anette
2003 Aspects of iconicity and economy in the choice between the s-genitive and the of-genitive in English. In Günter Rohdenburg & Britta Mondorf (eds.), Determinants of grammatical variation in English, 379–411. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110900019.379
Stefanowitsch, Anatol
2005 New York, Dayton (Ohio), and the Raw Frequency Fallacy. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory1–2. 295–301. doi: 10.1515/cllt.2005.1.1.1
Stefanowitsch, Anatol & Stefan Th. Gries
2003 Collostructions: Investigating the interaction between words and constructions. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics8(2). 209–243. doi: 10.1075/ijcl.8.2.03ste
Steger, Maria & Edgar W. Schneider
2012 Complexity as a function of iconicity: The case of complement clause constructions in New Englishes. In Bernd Kortmann & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi (eds.), Linguistic complexity: Second language acquisition, indigenization, contact, 156–191. Berlin: De Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110229226.156
Taylor, John
2012The Mental Corpus: How language is represented in the mind. Oxford: OUP. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199290802.001.0001
Verhagen, Arie & Suzanne Kemmer
1997 Interaction and causation: Causative constructions in modern standard Dutch. Journal of Pragmatics24. 61–82. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(96)00003‑3
Zipf, George K.
1949Human behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley Press.
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address