Literal versus exaggerated always and never

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

Price: $35.00+Taxes
Add to favourites

A cross-genre corpus study

The full text of this article is not currently available.

Data & Media loading...


Full text loading...


Always, adv
(2015) Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved (last accessedMarch 2015).
Anthony, L
(2011) AntConc(Version 3.3.0) [Computer software]. Tokyo: Waseda University. Retrieved (last accessedApril 2016).
Baker-Brown, G. , Ballard, E.J. , Bluck, S. , De Vries, B. , Suedfeld, P. , & Tetlock, P.E
(1990) Coding manual for conceptual/integrative complexity (Unpublished manuscript). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada and University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Benz, J.K. , Tompson, T.N. , & Rosenstiel, T
(2014) The Personal News Cycle. Arlington, VA: American Press Institute & Chicago, IL: Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. Retrieved (last accessedMay 2015).
Biber, D
(1993) The multi-dimensional approach to linguistic analyses of genre variation: An overview of methodology and findings. Computers and the Humanities, 26(5-6), 331–345.
(2006) University Language: A Corpus-based Study of Spoken and Written Registers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/scl.23
Biber, D. , Conrad, S. , & Reppen, R
(1998) Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511804489
Biber, D. , Johansson, S. , Conrad, S. , & Finegan, E
(1999) The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Carter, R. , & McCarthy, M
(2006) Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cazes, J
(1983) Lest we exaggerate. Journal of Liquid Chromatography, 6(9), 1557–1558. doi: 10.1080/01483918308064874
Chafe, W. , & Danielewicz, J
(1987) Properties of spoken and written language. In R. Horowitz & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending Oral and Written Language (pp. 83–113). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Claridge, C
(2011) Hyperbole in English: A Corpus-based Study of Exaggeration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Davies, M
(2008-) The Corpus of Contemporary American English: 450 million words, 1990-present. Available online (last accessedApril 2016).
Du Bois, J.W. , Chafe, W.L. , Meyer, C. , Thompson, S.A. , Englebretson, R. , & Martey, N
(2000) Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English, Parts 1-4. Philadelphia, PA: Linguistic Data Consortium.
Dutta-Bergman, M.J
(2004) Complementarity in consumption of news types across traditional and new media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(1), 41–60. doi: 10.1207/s15506878jobem4801_3
Evans, V. , & Green, M
(2006) Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Fellbaum, C
(1995) Co-occurrence and antonymy. International Journal of Lexicography, 8(4), 281–303. doi: 10.1093/ijl/8.4.281
Godfrey, J.J. , Holliman, E.C. , & McDaniel, J
(1992) SWITCHBOARD: Telephone speech corpus for research and development. In The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (Vol. 1, pp.517–520). San Francisco, CA.
Gries, S.T. , & Otani, N
(2010) Behavioral profiles: A corpus-based perspective on synonymy and antonymy. International Computer Archive of Modern and Medieval English Journal, 34, 121–150.
Hardy, J.A. , & Römer, U
(2013) Revealing disciplinary variation in student writing: A multi-dimensional analysis of the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers (MICUSP). Corpora, 8(2), 183–207. doi: 10.3366/cor.2013.0040
Hartung, W
(1996) Die Bearbeitung von Perspektiven-Divergenzen durch das Ausdrücken von Gereiztheit. In W. Kallmeyer (Ed.), Gesprächsrhetorik (pp. 118–189). Tübingen: Narr.
Iyengar, S. , Hahn, K.S. , Bonfadelli, H. , & Marr, M
(2009) “Dark areas of ignorance” revisited: Comparing international affairs knowledge in Switzerland and the United States. Communication Research, 36(3), 341–358. doi: 10.1177/0093650209333024
Jing-Schmidt, Z
(2007) Negativity bias in language: A cognitive-affective model of emotive intensifiers. Cognitive Linguistics, 18(3), 417–443. doi: 10.1515/COG.2007.023
Jones, S
(2002) Antonymy: A Corpus-based Perspective. New York, NY: Routledge.
(2006) A lexico-syntactic analysis of antonym co-occurrence in spoken English. Text & Talk, 26(2), 127–244. doi: 10.1515/TEXT.2006.009
(2007) “Opposites” in discourse: A comparison of antonym use across four domains. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(6), 1105–1119. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.11.019
Jones, S. , & Murphy, M.L
(2005) Using corpora to investigate antonym acquisition. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 10(3), 401–422. doi: 10.1075/ijcl.10.3.06jon
Jones, S. , Murphy, M.L. , Paradis, C. , & Willners, C
(2012) Antonyms in English: Construals, Constructions and Canonicity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139032384
Justeson, J.S. , & Katz, S.M
(1991) Co-occurrences of antonymous adjectives and their contexts. Computational Linguistics, 17(1), 1–19.
Kearns, K
(2000) Semantics. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Keenan, E.L
(2006) Quantifiers: Semantics. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd ed.) (pp.302–308). Oxford: Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/01116‑0
Labov, W
(1984) Intensity. In D. Schiffren (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1984: Meaning, Form, and Use in Context: Linguistic Applications (pp.43–70). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Langacker, R.W
(1988) An overview of cognitive grammar. In B. Rudzka-Ostyn (Ed.), Topics in Cognitive Linguistics (pp. 3–48). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.50.03lan
Lakoff, G
(1990) The invariance hypothesis: Is abstract reason based on image-schemas?Cognitive Linguistics, 1(1), 39–74. doi: 10.1515/cogl.1990.1.1.39
Legitt, J.S. , & Gibbs, R.W
(2000) Emotional reactions to verbal irony. Discourse Processes, 29(1), 1–24. doi: 10.1207/S15326950dp2901_1
Linell, P
(2005) The Written Language Bias in Linguistics: Its Nature, Origins and Transformations. London: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203342763
Link, K.E. , & Kreuz, R.J
(2005) Do men and women differ in their use of nonliteral language when they talk about emotions?In H.L. Colston & A.N. Katz (Eds.), Figurative Language Comprehension. Social and Cultural Influences (pp.153–179). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
McCarthy, M. , & Carter, R
(2004) “There’s millions of them”: Hyperbole in everyday conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 36(2), 149–184. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(03)00116‑4
McGlone, M.S. , & Reed, A.B
(1998) Anchoring in the interpretation of probability expressions. Journal of Pragmatics, 30(6), 723–733. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(98)00011‑3
Mettinger, A
(1994) Aspects of Semantic Opposition in English. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Muehleisen, V
(1997) Antonymy and Semantic Range in English (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Murphy, M.L
(1994) In Opposition to an Organized Lexicon: Pragmatic Principles and Lexical Semantic Relations (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Champaign, IL.
(2003) Semantic Relations and the Lexicon: Antonyms, Synonyms and Other Semantic Paradigms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511486494
Nakao, M.A. , & Axelrod, S
(1983) Numbers are better than words: Verbal specifications of frequency have no place in medicine. The American Journal of Medicine, 74(6), 1061–1065. doi: 10.1016/0002‑9343(83)90819‑7
Paradis, C. , & Willners, C
(2006) Antonymy and negation: The boundedness hypothesis. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(7), 1051–1080. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2005.11.009
Paradis, C. , Willners, C. , & Jones, S
(2009) Good and bad opposites: Using textual and experimental techniques to measure antonym canonicity. The Mental Lexicon, 4(3), 380–429. doi: 10.1075/ml.4.3.04par
Pepper, S. , & Prytulak, L.S
(1974) Sometimes frequently means seldom: Context effects in the interpretation of quantitative expressions. Journal of Research in Personality, 8(1), 95–101. doi: 10.1016/0092‑6566(74)90049‑X
Pew Research Center
(2007) What Americans know: 1989-2007. Public knowledge of current affairs little changed by news and information revolutions. Washington, D.C. Retrieved (last accessedApril 2015).
(2012) Trends in news consumption: 1991-2012. In changing news landscape, even television is vulnerable. Retrieved (last accessedApril 2015).
Rockwell, P
(2005) Sarcasm on television talk shows: Determining speaker intent through verbal and non-verbal cues. In A. Clark (Ed.), Psychology of Moods (pp. 109–140). New York, NY: Nova.
Simpson, R.C. , Briggs, S.L. , Ovens, J. , & Swales, J.M
(2002) The Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan.
Suedfeld, P. , Tetlock, P.E. , & Streufert, S
(1992) Conceptual/integrative complexity. In C.P. Smith , J.W. Atkinson , D.C. McClelland , & J. Veroff (Eds.), Motivation and Personality: Handbook of Thematic Content Analysis (pp.393–400). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511527937.028
Tannen, D
(1982) Oral and literate strategies in spoken and written narratives. Language, 58(1), 1–21. doi: 10.2307/413530
Tetlock, P.E
(1985) Integrative complexity of American and Soviet foreign policy rhetoric: A time-series analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(6), 1565–1585. doi: 10.1037/0022‑3514.49.6.1565
Tetlock, P.E. , Hannum, K.A. , & Micheletti, P.M
(1984) Stability and change in the complexity of senatorial debate: Testing the cognitive versus rhetorical style hypotheses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(5), 979–990. doi: 10.1037/0022‑3514.46.5.979
Tuckman, B.W
(1966) Integrative complexity: Its measurement and relation to creativity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 26(2), 369–382. doi: 10.1177/001316446602600209
Von Fintel, K
(1995) A minimal theory of adverbial quantification (Unpublished manuscript). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Wallsten, T.S. , Fillenbaum, S. , & Cox, J.A
(1986) Base rate effects on the interpretations of probability and frequency expressions. Journal of Memory and Language, 25(5), 571–587. doi: 10.1016/0749‑596X(86)90012‑4
Willners, C
(2001) Antonyms in context: A corpus-based semantic analysis of Swedish descriptive adjectives. InTravaux de l’Institut de Linguistique de Lund 40. Lund: Department of Linguistics, Lund University.
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address