The Kansas Developmental Learner corpus (KANDEL)

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

Price: £15.00+Taxes
Add to favourites

A developmental corpus of learner German

The full text of this article is not currently available.

Data & Media loading...


Full text loading...


Aarts, J. & Granger, S
1998 “Tag sequences in learner corpora: A key to interlanguage grammar and discourse”. In S. Granger (Ed.), Learner English on Computer. New York: Longman, 132–141.
Alexopoulou, T. , Geertzen, J. , Korhonen, A. & Meurers, D
2015 “Exploring big educational learner corpora for SLA research: Perspectives on relative clauses”, International Journal of Learner Corpus Research1(1), 96–129. doi: 10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.04ale
Brants, T
2000 “Inter-Annotator agreement for a German newspaper corpus”. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation . Athens, Greece: ELRA. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Byrnes, H. , Maxim, H. & Norris, J.M
2010 “Realizing advanced foreign language writing development in collegiate education: Curricular design, pedagogy, assessment [Monograph]”. Modern Language Journal94(S1). doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2010.01136.x
Callies, M. & Paquot, M
2015 “An interview with Yukio Tono”, International Journal of Learner Corpus Research1(1), 160–171. doi: 10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.06lee
Council of Europe
2001Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Strasbourg: Language Policy Unit. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Granger, S
2015 “Contrastive interlanguage analysis: A reappraisal”, International Journal of Learner Corpus Research1(1), 7–24. doi: 10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.01gra
Granger, S. , Gilquin, G. & Meunier, F
2015 “Introduction: Learner corpus research – past, present and future”. In S. Granger , G. Gilquin , & F. Meunier (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Learner Corpus Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–5. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139649414.001
Granger, S. & Thewissen, J
2007Computer-aided Error Analysis . Lecture presented at the Summer School Learner Corpus Research: From corpus design to data interpretation . University of Louvain/Belgium, 9–14 September 2007.
Gries, S.T
2015 “Statistics for learner corpus research”. In S. Granger , G. Gilquin , & F. Meunier (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Learner Corpus Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 159–181. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139649414.008
Gries, S.T. & Deshors, S
2015 “EFL and/vs. ESL?: A multi-level regression modeling perspective on bridging the paradigm gap”, International Journal of Learner Corpus Research1(1), 130–159. doi: 10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.05gri
Gut, U
2012 “The LeaP corpus: A multilingual corpus of spoken learner German and learner English”. In T. Schmidt & K. Wörner (Eds.), Multilingual Corpora and Multilingual Corpus Analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 3–23. doi: 10.1075/hsm.14.03gut
Jarvis, S. & Pavlenko, A
2008Crosslinguistic Influence in Language and Cognition. New York: Routledge.
Krummes, C. & Ensslin, A
2014 “What’s hard in German? WHiG: A British learner corpus of German”, Corpora9(2), 191–205. doi: 10.3366/cor.2014.0057
Larsen-Freeman, D
2006 “The emergence of complexity, fluency, and accuracy in the oral and written production of five Chinese learners of English”, Applied Linguistics27, 590–619. doi: 10.1093/applin/aml029
Lu, X
2010 “Automatic analysis of syntactic complexity in second language writing”, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics15(4), 474–496. doi: 10.1075/ijcl.15.4.02lu
Lüdeling, A
2008 “Mehrdeutigkeiten und Kategorisierung: Probleme bei der Annotation von Lernerkorpora”. In M. Walter & P. Grommes (Eds.), Fortgeschrittene Lernervarietäten: Korpuslinguistik und Zweitspracherwerbsforschung. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 119–140.
Lüdeling, A. & Hirschmann, H
2015 “Error annotation systems”. In S. Granger , G. Gilquin , & F. Meunier (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Learner Corpus Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 135–157. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139649414.007
Lüdeling, A. , Walter, M. , Kroymann, E. & Adolphs, P
2005 “Multi-level error annotation in learner corpora”, Proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2005 , Birmingham, UK. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Mackey, A. & Gass, S
2005Second Language Research: Methodology and Design. New York, NY: Routledge.
Maden-Weinberger, U
2015 “‘Hätte, wäre, wenn…’: A pseudo-longitudinal study of subjunctives in the Corpus of Learner German (CLEG)”, International Journal of Learner Corpus Research1(1), 25–57. doi: 10.1075/ijlcr.1.1.02mad
Meunier, F. & Littré, D
2013 “Tracking learners’ progress: Adopting a dual corpus cum experimental data approach”, Modern Language Journal97(S1), 61–76. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2012.01424.x
Meurers, D
2011 On automatically analyzing learner language. Keynote lecture presented atLearner Corpus Research 2011, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 15-17 September 2011. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Ortega, L. & Byrnes, H
2008 “Theorizing advancedness, setting up the longitudinal research agenda”. In L. Ortega & H. Byrnes (Eds.), The Longitudinal Study of Advanced L2 Capacities. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 281–300.
Ortega, L. & Sinicrope, C
2008Novice Proficiency in a Foreign Language: A Study of Task-based Performance Profiling on the STAMP Test. (Technical report). University of Oregon, Center for Applied Second Language Studies.
Ott, N. , Ziai, R. & Meurers, D
2012 “Creation and analysis of a reading comprehension exercise corpus: Towards evaluating meaning in context”. In T. Schmidt & K. Wörner (Eds.), Multilingual Corpora and Multilingual Corpus Analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 47–69. doi: 10.1075/hsm.14.05ott
Reznicek, M. , Lüdeling, A. & Hirschmann, H
2013 “Competing target hypotheses in the Falko corpus: A flexible multi-layer corpus architecture”. In A. Díaz-Negrillo , N. Ballier , & P. Thompson (Eds.), Automatic Treatment and Analysis of Learner Corpus Data. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 101–124. doi: 10.1075/scl.59.07rez
Reznicek, M. , Lüdeling, A. , Krummes, C. , Schwantuschke, F. , Walter, M. , Schmidt, K. , Hirschmann, H. & Andreas, T
2012 Das Falko-Handbuch: Korpusaufbau und Annotationen, Version 2.01. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Reznicek, M. , Walter, M. , Schmidt, K. , Lüdeling, A. , Hirschmann, H. , Krummes, C. & Andreas, T
2010Das Falko-Handbuch: Korpusaufbau und Annotationen, Version 1.0.1. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Schiller, A. , Teufel, S. , Stöckert, C. & Thielen, C
1999Guidelines für das Tagging deutscher Textcorpora mit STTS [Guidelines for tagging German corpora of written language with STTS]. Technical Report. Stuttgart, Germany: Institut für maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung [Institute for Machine Language Processing].
Schmid, H
1994 “Probabilistic part-of-speech tagging using decision trees”, Proceedings of the International Conference on New Methods in Language Processing . Manchester, UK, 44–49. Available at:[C1] (accessed4 March 2016).
Schmidt, T
2011 “A TEI-based approach to standardising spoken language transcription”, Journal of the Text Encoding Initiative1. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Vyatkina, N
2012 “The development of second language writing complexity in groups and individuals: A longitudinal learner corpus study”, Modern Language Journal96(4), 576–598. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2012.01401.x
2013a “Analyzing part-of-speech variability in a longitudinal learner corpus and a pedagogic corpus”. In S. Granger , G. Gilquin , & F. Meunier (Eds.), Twenty Years of Learner Corpus Research: Looking Back, Moving Ahead. Corpora and Language in Use - Proceedings 1. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses universitaires de Louvain, 479–491.
2013b “Specific syntactic complexity: Developmental profiling of individuals based on an annotated learner corpus”, Modern Language Journal97(s1), 11–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2012.01421.x
2016 “Data-driven learning for beginners: The case of German verb-preposition collocations”, ReCALL28(2), 207–226. doi: 10.1017/S0958344015000269
Vyatkina, N. , Hirschmann, H. & Golcher, F
2015 “Syntactic modification at early stages of L2 German writing development: A longitudinal learner corpus study”, Journal of Second Language Writing29, 28–50. doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2015.06.006
Wisniewski, K. , Schöne, K. , Nicolas, L. , Vettori, C. , Boyd, A. , Meurers, D. , Abel, A. & Hana, J
2013 “MERLIN: An online trilingual learner corpus empirically grounding the European Reference Levels in authentic learner data”. In ICT for Language Learning, Conference Proceedings 2013 . Libreriauniversitaria.itEdizioni. Available at: (accessed4 March 2016).
Zinsmeister, H. & Breckle, M
2012 “The ALeSKo learner corpus: Design – annotation – quantitative analyses”. In T. Schmidt & K. Wörner (Eds.), Multilingual Corpora and Multilingual Corpus Analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 71–96. doi: 10.1075/hsm.14.06zin
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address