Length of residence

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

Price: $35.00+Taxes
Add to favourites

Does it make a difference in older bilinguals?

The full text of this article is not currently available.

Data & Media loading...


Full text loading...


Abrahamsson, N.
(2012) Age of onset and nativelike L2 ultimate attainment of morphosyntactic and phonetic intuition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 187–214. doi: 10.1017/S0272263112000022
Abrahamsson, N. , & Hyltenstam, K.
(2008) The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 481–509. doi: 10.1017/S027226310808073X
(2009) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59(2), 249–306. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00507.x
Aoyama, K. , Flege, J. E. , Guion, S. G. , Akahane-Yamada, R. , & Yamada, T.
(2004) Perceived phonetic dissimilarity and L2 speech learning: The case of Japanese/r/and English/l/and/r/. Journal of Phonetics, 32(2), 233–250. doi: 10.1016/S0095‑4470(03)00036‑6
Asher, J. J. , & Garcia, R.
(1969) The optimal age to learn a foreign language. Modern Language Journal, 53, 334–342. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1969.tb04603.x
Babcock, L. , Stowe, J. C. , Maloof, C. J. , Brovetto, C. , & Ullman, M. T.
(2012) The storage and composition of inflected forms in adult-learned second language: A study of the influence of length of residence, age of arrival, sex, and other factors. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(4), 820–840. doi: 10.1017/S1366728912000053
Baker, W.
(2010) Effects of age and experience on the production of English word-final stops by Korean speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(3), 263–278. doi: 10.1017/S136672890999006X
Baker, W. , & Trofimovich, P.
(2005) Interaction of native- and second-language vowel system(s) in early and late bilinguals. Language and Speech, 48(1), 1–27. doi: 10.1177/00238309050480010101
Bartning, I. , Forsberg, F. , & Hancock, V.
(2009) Resources and obstacles in very advanced L2 French: Formulaic language, information structure and morphosyntax. EUROSLA Yearbook, 9, 185–211. doi: 10.1075/eurosla.9.10bar
Bartning, I. , Lundell, F. F. , & Hancock, V.
(2012) On the role of linguistic contextual factors for morphosyntactic stabilization in high-level L2 French. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34(2), 243–267. doi: 10.1017/S0272263112000046
Ben-David, B. M. , Chambers, C. G. , Daneman, M. , Pichora-Fuller, M. K. , Reingold, E. M. , & Schneider, B. A.
(2011) Effects of aging and noise on real-time spoken word recognition: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54(1), 243–262. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2010/09‑0233)
Bialystok, E. , & Hakuta, K.
(1999) Confounded age: Linguistic and cognitive factors in age differences for second language acquisition. In D. Birdsong (Ed.), Second language acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis (pp.161–181). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bialystok, E. , & Luk, G.
(2011) Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(2), 397–401. doi: 10.1017/S136672891100040X
Bialystok, E. , & Miller, B.
(1999) The problem of age in second-language acquisition: Influences from language, structure, and task. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2(2), 127–145. doi: 10.1017/S1366728999000231
Birdsong, D.
(2005) Interpreting age effects in second language acquisition. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp.109–127). New York: Oxford University Press.
(2006) Age and second language acquisition and processing: A selective overview. Language Learning, 56(S1), 9–49. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2006.00353.x
(2009) Age and the end state of second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition (pp.401–424). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Birdsong, D. , & Molis, M.
(2001) On the evidence for maturational constraints in second-language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 235–249. doi: 10.1006/jmla.2000.2750
Bohn, O.-S. , & Flege, J. E.
(1992) The production of new and similar vowels by adult German learners of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 131–158. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100010792
Braver, T. S. , & West, R.
(2008) Working memory, executive control, and aging. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of aging and cognition, (Vol.3, pp.311–372). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Burke, D. M. , MacKay, D. G. , Worthley, J. S. , & Wade, E.
(1991) On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults?Journal of Memory and Language, 30(5), 542–579. doi: 10.1016/0749‑596X(91)90026‑G
Burke, D. M. , & Shafto, M. A.
(2008) Language and aging. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of aging and cognition, (Vol.3, pp.373–443). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Bylund, E. , Abrahamsson, N. , & Hyltenstam, K.
(2012) Does first language maintenance hamper nativelikeness in a second language?Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34(2), 215–241. doi: 10.1017/S0272263112000034
Connor, L. T. , Spiro III, A. , Obler, L. K. , & Albert, M. L.
(2004) Change in object naming ability during adulthood. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 59B(5), P203–P209. doi: 10.1093/geronb/59.5.P203
DeKeyser, R. M.
(2000) The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 499–533.
DeKeyser, R. M. , Alfi-Shabtay, I. , & Ravid, D.
(2010) Cross-linguistic evidence for the nature of age effects in second language acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31(3), 413–438. doi: 10.1017/S0142716410000056
Favreau, M. , & Segalowitz, N. S.
(1983) Automatic and controlled processes in the first- and second-language reading of fluent bilinguals. Memory and Cognition, 11, 56–74. doi: 10.3758/BF03198281
Federmeier, K. D. , Kutas, M. , & Schul, R.
(2010) Age-related and individual differences in the use of prediction during language comprehension. Brain and Language, 115(3), 149–161. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2010.07.006
Feyereisen, P.
(1997) A meta-analytic procedure shows an age-related decline in picture naming: Comments on Goulet, Ska, and Kahn (1994). Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 1328–1333. doi: 10.1044/jslhr.4006.1328
Flege, J. E.
(1988) Factors affecting degree of perceived foreign accent in English sentences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84, 70–79. doi: 10.1121/1.396876
(2009) Give input a chance!In T. Piske & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), Input matters in SLA (pp.175–190). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Flege, J. E. , Birdsong, D. , Bialystok, E. , Mack, M. , Sung, H. , & Tsukada, K.
(2006) Degree of foreign accent in English sentences produced by Korean children and adults. Journal of Phonetics, 34(2), 153–175. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2005.05.001
Flege, J. E. , Bohn, O.-S. , & Jang, S.
(1997) Effects of experience on non-native speakers’ production and perception of English vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 437–470. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1997.0052
Flege, J. E. , & Fletcher, K. L.
(1992) Talker and listener effects on degree of perceived foreign accent. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 91, 370–389. doi: 10.1121/1.402780
Flege, J. E. , & Liu, S.
(2001) The effect of experience on adults' acquisition of a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(4), 527–552.
Flege, J. E. , MacKay, I. A. , & Imai, S.
(2010) What accounts for “age” effects on overall degree of foreign accent?In M. Wrembel , M. Kul , & K. Dziubalska-Kolaczyk (Eds.), Achievements and perspectives in the acquisition of second language speech: New sounds (Vol.2, pp.65–82). Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang Publishing.
Flege, J. E. , Munro, M. J. , & MacKay, I. R.
(1995) Factors affecting degree of perceived foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 3125–3134. doi: 10.1121/1.413041
(1996) Factors affecting the production of word-initial consonants in a second language. In R. Bayley & D. Preston (Eds.), Second language acquisition and linguistic variation, (Vol.10, pp.47–73). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.10.03fle
Flege, J. E. , Takagi, N. , & Mann, V. A.
(1995) Japanese adults can learn to produce English /r/ and /l/ accurately. Language and Speech, 38(1), 25–55.
Flege, J. E. , Yeni-Komshian, G. H. , & Liu, S.
(1999) Age constraints on second-language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 78–104. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1999.2638
Giorgio, A. , Santelli, L. , Tomassini, V. , Bosnell, R. , Smith, S. , De Stefano, N. , & Johansen-Berg, H.
(2010) Age-related changes in grey and white matter structure throughout adulthood. Neuroimage, 51(3), 943–951. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.004
Gollan, T. H. , & Silverberg, N. B.
(2001) Tip-of-the-tongue states in Hebrew-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 63–83. doi: 10.1017/S136672890100013X
Goral, M. , Spiro III, A. , Albert, M. L. , Obler, L. K. , & Connor, L. T.
(2007) Change in lexical retrieval skills in adulthood. Mental Lexicon, 2(2), 215–240. doi: 10.1075/ml.2.2.05gor
Granena, G. , & Long, M.
(2013) Age of onset, length of residence, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment in three linguistic domains. Second Language Research, 29(3), 311–343. doi: 10.1177/0267658312461497
Harley, T. A. , Jessiman, L. J. , & MacAndrew, S. B. G.
(2011) Decline and fall: A biological, developmental, and psycholinguistic account of deliberative language processes and ageing. Aphasiology,25(2), 123–153. doi: 10.1080/02687031003798262
Hopp, H. C.
(2007) Ultimate attainment at the interfaces in second language acquisition: Grammar and processing. Doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen.
Ingvalson, E. M. , McClelland, J. L. , & Holt, L. L.
(2011) Predicting native English-like performance by native Japanese speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 39(4), 571–584. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2011.03.003
Jang, E. , Dunlop, M. , Wagner, M. , Kim, Y. , & Gu, Z.
(2013) Elementary school ELLs' reading skill profiles using cognitive diagnosis modeling: Roles of length of residence and home language environment. Language Learning, 63(3), 400–436. doi: 10.1111/lang.12016
Jia, G. , Strange, W. , Wu, Y. , Collado, J. , & Guan, Q.
(2006) Perception and production of English vowels by Mandarin speakers: Age-related differences vary with amount of L2 exposure. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119(2), 1118-1130. doi: 10.1121/1.2151806
Johnson, J. S. , & Newport, E. L.
(1989) Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60–99. doi: 10.1016/0010‑0285(89)90003‑0
Larson-Hall, J.
(2006) What does more time buy you? Another look at the effects of long-term residence on production accuracy of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese speakers. Language and Speech, 49(4), 521–548. doi: 10.1177/00238309060490040401
Lenneberg, E.
(1967) Biological foundations of language. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Linck, J. A. , Kroll, J. F. , & Sunderman, G.
(2009) Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language: Evidence for the role of inhibition in second-language learning. Psychological Science, 20(12), 1507–1515. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2009.02480.x
Long, M. H.
(2003) Stabilization and fossilization in interlanguage development. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.487–536). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. doi: 10.1002/9780470756492.ch16
MacKay, I. R. , Flege, J. E. , & Imai, S.
(2006) Evaluating the effects of chronological age and sentence duration on degree of perceived foreign accent. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27(2), 157–183. doi: 10.1017/S0142716406060231
MacKay, I. R. , Meador, D. , & Flege, J. E.
(2001) The identification of English consonants by native speakers of Italian. Phonetica, 58(1–2), 103–125. doi: 10.1159/000028490
McAllister, R. , Flege, J. E. , & Piske, T.
(2002) The influence of L1 on the acquisition of Swedish quantity by native speakers of Spanish, English and Estonian. Journal of Phonetics, 30(2), 229–258. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2002.0174
McDonald, J. L.
(2000) Grammaticality judgments in a second language: Influences of age of acquisition and native language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 395–423. doi: 10.1017/S0142716400003064
Meador, D. , Flege, J. E. , & MacKay, I. R. A.
(2000) Factors affecting the recognition of words in a second language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 55–67. doi: 10.1017/S1366728900000134
Moyer, A.
(2004) Age, accent and experience in second language acquisition: An integrated approach to critical period inquiry. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Piske, T. , MacKay, I. R. A. , & Flege, J. E.
(2001) Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191–215. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2001.0134
Saito, K.
(2013) Age effects on late bilingualism: The production development of /r/ by high-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(4), 546–562. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2013.07.003
Saito, K. , & Brajot, F.-X.
(2013) Scrutinizing the role of length of residence and age of acquisition in the interlanguage pronunciation development of English /r/ by late Japanese bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 847–863. doi: 10.1017/S1366728912000703
Segalowitz, N.
(2003) Automaticity and second languages. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.382–408). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers. doi: 10.1002/9780470756492.ch13
Segalowitz, N. , & Hulstijn, J.
(2005) Automaticity in bilingualism and second language learning. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp.371–388). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Selinker, L.
(1972) Interlanguage. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 10(1–4), 209–232.
Shafto, M. A. , & Tyler, L. K.
(2014) Language in the aging brain: The network dynamics of cognitive decline and preservation. Science, 346(6209), 583–587. doi: 10.1126/science.1254404
Silva, R. , & Clahsen, H.
(2008) Morphologically complex words in L1 and L2 processing: Evidence from masked priming experiments in English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 245–260. doi: 10.1017/S1366728908003404
Stevens, G.
(2006) The age-length-onset problem in research on second language acquisition among immigrants. Language Learning, 56(4), 671–692. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2006.00392.x
Tahta, S. , Wood, M. , & Loewenthal, K.
(1981) Foreign accents: Factors relating to transfer of accent from the first language to a second language. Language and Speech, 24(3), 1–9.
Tanner, D. , Inoue, K. , & Osterhout, L.
(2014) Brain-based individual differences in online L2 grammatical comprehension. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 277–293. doi: 10.1017/S1366728913000370
Thompson, I.
(1991) Foreign accents revisited: The English pronunciation of Russian immigrants. Language Learning, 41(2), 177–204. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1991.tb00683.x
Tsukada, K. , Birdsong, D. , Bialystok, E. , Mack, M. , Sung, H. , & Flege, J.
(2005) A developmental study of English vowel production and perception by native Korean adults and children. Journal of Phonetics, 33(3), 263–290. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2004.10.002
Verhaegen, C. , & Poncelet, M.
(2013) Changes in naming and semantic abilities with aging from 50 to 90 years. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19(2), 119–126. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712001178
Weber-Fox, C. M. , & Neville, H. J.
(1996) Maturational constraints on functional specializations for language processing: ERP and behavioral evidence in bilingual speakers. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8(3), 231–256. doi: 10.1162/jocn.1996.8.3.231
Winitz, H. , Gillespie, B. , & Starcev, J.
(1995) The development of English speech patterns of a 7-year-old Polish-speaking child. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 24(2), 117–143. doi: 10.1007/BF02143959
Wolfram, W.
(1985) Variability in tense marking: A case for the obvious. Language Learning, 35, 229–253. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1985.tb01026.x
Yamada, R. A. , Strange, W. , Magnuson, J. S. , Pruitt, J. S. , & Clarke III, W. D.
(1994) The intelligibility of Japanese speakers' production of American English /r/, /l/, and /w/, as evaluated by native speakers of American English. InProceedings of the Acoustical Society of Japan (Vol.4, pp.2023–2026).
Yeni-Komshian, G. H. , Flege, J. E. , & Liu, S.
(2000) Pronunciation proficiency in the first and second languages of Korean-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(2), 131–149. doi: 10.1017/S1366728900000225
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address